Pathophysiology of Alzheimers Disease

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Pathophysiology of Alzheimers Disease

Alzheimers disease is a progressive loss of mental function characterised by degeneration of brain tissue,including loss of nerve cells,accumulation of abnormal protein called beta amyloid and development of neurofibrillary tangles.

Causes:

  • Decrease in acetylcholine.

Check for symptoms:

  • Forgetting recent events is an early sign,followed by increasing confusion, impairment of other mental functions,problems using and understanding language and doing daily tasks.
  • People become less able to use good judgment.speech pattern may change slightly.people may use simple words rather than a specific word.they are unable to find ┬áspecific word.

Prescription contains:

Cholinesterase inhibitors: Donepezil,Rivastigmine,Galantamine

NMDA antagonist:Memantine

Drug and Dose:

  • Memantine:5 mg bid
  • Rivastigmine:1.5 mg bid

Counselling on side effects:

  • Donepezil : well tolerated but can cause nausea, diarrhoea.

Prevention:

  • Continuing to do challenging mental activities(learning new skills,doing crossword puzzles) well in to old age.
  • Exercising
  • Controlling hypertension
  • Lowering cholesterol levels
  • Consuming a diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids and low in saturated fats.
  • Drinking alcohol in modest amounts
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