Pathophysiology of Anxiety Disorder

Anxiety is a distressing, unpleasant emotional state of nervousness and uneasiness It can be anticipatory before a threat, persist after a threat has passed, or...

Vitamins deficiency and Toxicity

Vitamins deficiency, dependency and toxicity Vitamins may be fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E, and K) or water soluble (B vitamins and vitamin C). The...

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also called hyperandrogenic anovulation (HA) Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or Stein–Leventhal syndrome, is a set of symptoms due to a hormone...

Hair disorders- Alopecia

Hair disorders include alopecia, hypertrichosis, hirsutism, and pseudofolliculitis barbae ALOPECIA: Loss of hair Types: Scarring alopecia - destruction and fibrous tissue replacement in hair follicle. Non Scarring alopecia...

Pathophysiology of Anemia

Pharmacology of Anemia Anemia is a decrease in the number of RBCs, Hematocrit (volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood), or Hb content. Prescription...

Pathophysiology of Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome of ventricular dysfunction Left ventricular failure causes shortness of breath and fatigue, and right ventricular failure causes peripheral and...

Pathophysiology of Hypertension

Sustained elevation of systolic, diastolic blood pressure or both Types Primary hypertension (85 to 95% cases) – unknown cause(Haemodynamic changes, environmental factors) Secondary hypertension – identified cause...

Pain

Pain has sensory and emotional components and is often classified as acute or chronic Acute  pain is frequently associated with anxiety and hyperactivity of the...